CeLSIUS logo

Census logo

Deprivation indices

These are area-based socio-economic indicators. The examples available in the LS include the Carstairs score (1981, 1991), Craig-Webber score (CLUST711 @1971), ACORN score (CLUST811 @1981) and 1991 area classifications (CLUSTW9). The Indices of Multiple Deprivation (2004, 2007, 2010 for England and 2005, 2008, 2011 for Wales) have been calculated at Super Output Area level but are not an integral part of the LS: please ask a member of the CeLSIUS team if you wish to use these classifications. All of these combine a number of variables covering demography, household composition, housing conditions, socio-economic structure and employment to achieve a measure of the deprivation of a given area.

The Carstairs score is available at census ward level, mapped to individuals, for 1981 and 1991, in the variables CARSCO8, CARSCO9. It is a continuous score, rather than categorical, which makes it particularly flexible for use in analytical studies. However, because it is a ward-level variable, you would not normally receive the raw scores in your dataset, as this might compromise the confidentiality of the data. Instead, scores are grouped into quintiles for release to users. At the time of writing, the Carstairs variables have been recalculated for census years from 1971 to 2001, these have not been incorporated into the LS, however if you wish to use these later Carstairs scores in your study, please contact CeLSIUS for further advice.

The Craig-Webber and ACORN variables are also ward-level variables, while the 1991 area classifications are available at county district and district health authority level. None of these variables is documented in the Data Dictionary, and they are little-used in LS studies. If you should wish to use any of these variables, please contact CeLSIUS for more details.

The Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) - i.e. an index for England and a separate index for Wales - were first produced in 2000. The English index is a score based on 33 different indicators covering deprivation in income, employment, health, education, housing and geographical access to services. The IMD for 2000 is based on data from 1998, but it was recalculated in 2004 and 2010, using data from the 2001 Census. Methodological advice is available from the ONS website.

For further information on deprivation measures, please see the socio-economic module.